Mfundo Zakumapeto

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Gemology Zakumapeto - Gemological Institute of Cambodia Zakumapeto. Mfundo Zakumapeto. mwala wamtengo wapatali Zakumapeto

Abalone ngale

akuda ngale Baroque opangidwa ndi edible univalue mollusk amene ali ndi chipolopolo khutu zooneka amtengo yake osiyanasiyana mayi wa ngale akalowa. Amenewa akupezeka America, New Zealand ndi madzi Japanese. Sikawirikawiri spheroid, iwo nthawi zambiri flattened ndi khutu kapena tooth- mphako

kuyamwa

kutenga (mwachitsanzo, mankhwala a) kapena kutenga kapena kupeza mphamvu mphamvu chowala (mwachitsanzo, kuwala)

mayamwidwe sipekitiramu

chitsanzo cha mizere mdima ofukula, magulu kapena zinthu (yotakata mayamwidwe), ndinawona pamene kuwala omwe opatsirana kapena anasonyeza ku mwala wamtengo wapatali ndi omwazika mu zigawo zake kawalidwe ndipo anafufuza ntchito chida monga spectroscope a.

Adamantine

onani luster

Adularescence

khalidwe bluish-loyera kapena yamkaka Sheen (Schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

pamene amafotokozera kusintha alipo yekha monga zonyansa zazing'ono zinthu mwala, chuma ndi allochromatic (allo = ena; chroma = mtundu)

Alluvium

Ambiri akuti zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito miyala ya thanthwe zinyalala (alluvial madipoziti) omwe amadutsa ndi moyenda madzi ndi kuikidwa pansi pa mtsinje, mtsinje, chigumula kumveka kapena nyanja mabedi.

Amorphous

onani sanali crystalline

Anisotropic

onani doubly refractive

Archimedes mfundo

Archimedes mfundo limanena kuti thupi ndi kumizidwa mu madzi, ndiye cholinga oposa madzi pa thupi ndi wofanana ndi kulemera kwa madzi ena. (The mtima yokoka enieni ndi masekeli njira hydrostatic zachokera mfundo imeneyi)

miyala yokumba

timibulu zopangidwa kuti alibe mnzake achilengedwe (mwachitsanzo, daimondi simulants: strontium titanate ndi YAG)

mankhwala yokumba

ndi kuwongola wa maonekedwe a zinthu ndi Kutentha, kudetsa, ❖ kuyanika, impregnation, walitsa kapena laser-pobowola

anasonkhana miyala yamtengo wapatali

Mfundo iliyonse ndi mbali ziwiri kapena zambiri omwe manowa kapena anasakaniza pamodzi kupanga mwala umodzi

Asterism

asterism ikuchoka tingati zambiri zinayi kapena zisanu ndi Magetsi, ndi ulusi limagwirizana kapena cavities fibrous mu mwala umene yathyoledwa paulendo cabochon ndi inclusions ndi zochokera kufanana ndi lamba ndege

Aventurescence

wamphamvu spangled chinyezimiro cha kuwala kwa mbale kapena flakes a mchere wina m'gulu mwala (mwachitsanzo, malinga aventurine galasi, aventurine khwatsi, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

Olamulira chosokonekera

mbali chosokonekera, ndi olamulira chosokonekera ndi mzere kungoganiza pakati pa mzinda wa galasi pafupifupi amene amaoneka akhoza zimayenda kuti azipereka maonekedwe omwewo 2, 3, 4 kapena 6 nthawi kasinthasintha kokwanira (ie , nkhope ofanana ali ndi malo ofanana kangapo mu kasinthasintha kwathunthu)

ngale Baroque

dzina ntchito kwa ngale, zonse zachilengedwe ndi otukuka, chithuza kapena chotupa,

amene sapita ku mawonekedwe

Basalt

basalt, ambiri extrusive igneous thanthwe, ndi mdima, chabwino-grained thanthwe kwenikweni wopangidwa feldspar mdima ndi pyroxene (wokhala kapena wopanda olivine). Pali mitundu amene ali m'magulu malinga pa yofanana mu kapangidwe, kapangidwe ndi okhutira mchere

miyala Biaxial

mu orthorhombic, monoclinic ndi triclinic kachitidwe pali atatu nkhwangwa galasi la amayesetsa zosiyana. Wachiphamaso refraction zidzachitika mbali kwambiri, koma padzakhala awiri chamawonedwe nkhwangwa (malangizo a refraction single) kuti amasiyana lathu aliyense osiyana mitundu mwala. mchere la kachitidwe akudziwika ngati biaxial. (Mu dongosolo orthorhombic ndi nkhwangwa chamawonedwe Amachitanso okonda kwa 'C' (mfundo ofukula olamulira), pamene mu monoclinic ndi triclinic palibe kugwirizana ndi nkhwangwa galasi.)

Birefringence

(Umatchedwanso iwiri refraction / DR) birefringence ndi kuchuluka iwiri refraction ya anisotropic mwala wamtengo wapatali chimaonetsera kusiyana pakati pa akalozera refractive pa kulekana pazipita

Biwa ngale

sanali nucleated otukuka ngale (zambiri chowulungika kapena Baroque mu mawonekedwe ku Japan) kuwetedwa padziko m'mphepete mwa nyanja Biwa ku Japan. ngale The mwakula mu lalikulu mamazelo madzi ndi kulowetsa zidutswa yaing'ono ya chobvala mu thupi la mussel ndi

chilema

onse amatanthauza chilema izi zimakhudza padziko mwala. chilema A kawirikawiri chifukwa cha zochita anthu, kaya pamene mwala uli kudula kapena pamene akugwiritsa chobvalidwa mu zodzikongoletsera. Zimakhalapo, maenje, ndi abrasions ndi mitundu yofala chilema

ngale chithuza

ngale amene yokutidwa mbali imodzi yokha ndi wosanjikiza nacreous omwe udali pa maiko irritant original pokhudzana ndi chipolopolo mollusk. Pamene ngale amenewa yotengedwa, dera limene linali kukhudzana ndi chipolopolo ndi umboni za nacre. Choncho mbali iyi yokha zambiri ankawachotsera kutali ndi zobisika poonetsa

ru

ru ndi kuchuluka okwana internally kuwala amene anabwerera kwa diso kwa mwala wamtengo wapatali kwambiri. Kapenanso zikhoza chimaonetsera kuwala (moyo) kwa mwala wamtengo wapatali monga anatsimikiza mtima kuchuluka kwa kuwala anasonyeza kumbuyo kwa diso kuchokera kumbuyo kwa mbali mwala

Brittleness

brittleness limanenedwa ngati kufooka mu mwala wamtengo wapatali imene ngakhale kuwuma kwake, kuvumbitsira atengeke wovulala, kuwonongeka (mwachitsanzo, kutentha ankachitira zircon)

diso Cat a

onani chatoyancy

Center chosokonekera

mbali chosokonekera, malo chosokonekera alipo pamene nkhope ya galasi wangwiro ndi kosiyana zosiyana nkhope ofanana mbali ina ya galasi la (ie, nkhope ali nkhope wina ofanana, popenyana ndi kufanana)

Chatoyancy

chinyezimiritso zotsatira kuchokera zochokera inclusions kufanana fibrous kapena (diso mphaka a) cavities. Chingwe single kuwala limawonekera pa kumathandiza kupeza ngodya pomwe malangizo a inclusions ndipo bwino ndinawona pansi limodzi pamwamba kuwala gwero ndi miyala kuti akhala kudula paulendo cabochon

Chelsea mtundu rater

chida ongokhala osakaniza Zosefera, kotero anamanga kuti timatha awiri okha zigawo yopapatiza a sipekitiramu kuti kuonekera mwa iwo: zozama wofiira (pafupi 690nm) ndi wobiriwira yellow (pafupi 570nm). Imathandiza mu zikusonyeza pamaso pa Chrome kapena cobalt mu ngale ena, pakuti kudziwika (Chrome) utoto miyala ndi kulekanitsa ena zipangizo mwala kuchokera imitations awo wamba. Chikumbutso: Gwiritsani ntchito chizindikiro chenjezo yekha. Umboni kumadalira mayesero ena

Chromophore

(Mitundu wothandizila). Gawo la molekyulu amene amachititsa mtundu pawiri ali. Iwo ali pano monga constituent lofunika mankhwala zikuchokera miyala idiochromatic kapena monga zonyansa accidentai miyala allochromatic

momveka

anawagwiritsa ntchito pofotokoza za ufulu wachibale ku cholakwa chilichonse internai kapena irregularity (inclusions) mu mwala. Tanthauzo akhozanso anawonjezera kuti monga padziko kupunduka (zilema) tikaonetsetsa momveka kalasi ya mwala

mtundu magulu

magulu ziri yomweyi mtundu anawona padziko timibulu kapena mu nyumba internai miyala (zimasonyeza mbali kukula chifukwa cha kusiyana alipo mankhwala, zakumwa, kutentha, kuthamanga ndi zinthu zina)

Mtundu mu ngale

ndi zithunzi maganizo a m'nyanjazi limene kuwala oyera anapambulwa (ofiira, achikasu, zobiriwira, buluu, Violet) komanso kumva wofiirira amene sapezeka sipekitiramu dzuwa. Mtundu anafotokozedwa ndi hue, machulukitsidwe ndi kamvekedwe. Mtundu thupi la mwala wamtengo wapatali ndi lachokera ku kuwala imene kuoneka komanso kukhala chifukwa mayamwidwe adziwana dzulo lina la kuwala kuwoneka. Mtundu angathe kuyamba chifukwa cha kupezeka, kulowerera kuwala ndi kuwala

mtundu magawidwe

mtundu magawidwe akufotokozera pa kukula kwa galasi chifukwa woipa losemphana zosafunika. Kusiyana mu mtundu (magulu kapena mabacteria) zambiri anawona kutsatira nkhope alipo galasi

ochekenera zinthu

Kusankha mayamwidwe kuwala chifukwa kukhalapo kwa zinthu kusintha (Chrome, cobalt, mkuwa, vanadium, manganese, chitsulo, faifi tambala, titaniyamu) miyala idiochromatic ndi allochromatic

yaying'ono

yaying'ono ali ndi tanthauzo lofanana ndi yaikulu umagwiritsidwa makamaka pamene makhiristo alibe chizindikiro cha particles structural (mwachitsanzo, fme-grained jadeite yade)

gulu mwala wamtengo wapatali

onani anasonkhana mwala wamtengo wapatali

Conch ngale

pinki ngale: ngale kuwapeza conch chachikulu, ndi mollusk univalve anapeza gombe la Florida, phompho la California ndi Mexico. ngale awa zambiri pinki (pinki lalanje kapena zoyera) mu mtundu ndi yodziwika ndi kupanda ❖ kuyanika nacreous

Conchoidal

onani wovulala

Mundipeze tamorphic

ndi recrystallization wa okhutira mchere wa miyala analipo kapena pafupi ndi zone kukhudzana chifukwa kukhalapo kwa magmas

Contact amapasa

choyimira cha galasi twinning imene anthu ali kukhudzana pamodzi ndege wamba (ndege mapasa). The magawo awiri a galasi amenewa kotero anafotokoza kuti ngati gawo limodzi zimayenda mwa 180 ° (a theka iwonso) za olamulira ndi (mapasa olamulira) ndiye Magawo awiri adzapanga mawonekedwe a galasi munthu. The kukhudzana amapasa alipo m'njira ziwiri: kukhudzana single amapasa kumene 2 Magawo a galasi ali kuti n'zosiyana kuti ngati theka limodzi zimayenda 180 ° za ndege ya agwirizane, mawonekedwe a galasi yachibadwa analandira; mobwerezabwereza, polysynthetic kapena lammelar mapasa-choyimira cha galasi twinning kupanga mndandanda wa mapasa kukhudzana zambiri mu mbale woonda kwambiri. Izi m'magulu lathu mosiyana ndi anzawo mwamsanga (mwachitsanzo, wopezeka corundum ndi feldspar). Onani mapasa komanso interpenetrant

ovuta ngodya

mbali ya zochitika kumene ray wa kuwala umene akuyenda kuchokera optically lolemererapo kwa sing'anga n'kukhala ndi refracted pa 90 ˛ kwa yachibadwa (ie, izo skims padziko atolankhani awiri anakumana). Taonani: iliyonse kuwonjezeka pa mbali iyi ya zochitika kodi chifukwa ray refracted kubwerera mu sing'anga original kumene izo zikanati kutsatira malamulo a chinyezimiro (ie, ilo kwathunthu internally akusonyeza.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Crypto = chobisika). Anawagwiritsa ntchito pofotokoza zinthu wopangidwa ndi chiwerengero chachikulu ndi timibulu yaing'ono zambiri kum'mwera tosaoneka musayambe misa labwinobwino. The kum'mwera tosaoneka galasi akaphatikiza akhoza kuoneka amorphous kwa apoyera

Crystal

mibulu ndi mankhwala yunifolomu olimba ndi anatilamula internai dongosolo atomiki ndi mawonekedwe akunja njanjira ndi symmetrically anakonza ndege nkhope (lathyathyathya)

mawonekedwe Crystal

mawonekedwe galasi tichipeza ail nkhope amene nawonso zokhudzana ndi nkhwangwa crystallographic (mwachitsanzo, piramidi, prism, pinacoid, mzikiti)

chizolowezi Crystal

ndi akalumikidzidwa galasi (mawonekedwe, kuphatikiza makhalidwe padziko) imene mchere zambiri zimachitika amatchedwa makhalidwe awo galasi

inclusions Crystal

galasi inclusions ndi kuuzindikira ndi awo ndi ngodya ndi okhota ndi m'mbali ndi molunjika. m'mbali m'goli ndi mitundu pang'ono adzakhale Komanso anakumana ndi chifukwa reabsorption wa inclusions lapansi. (Galasi inclusions zambiri chikaonekera thandizo polimbana ndi gulu maziko pamene ankaona pansi darkfield chiwalitsiro. Iwo akhoza kufufuzidwa pogwiritsa ntchito polars anawoloka.)

Crystal chosokonekera

galasi chosokonekera amatanthauza chitsanzo moyenera kapangidwe atomiki. Ndi kubereka yeniyeni (kubwereza maonekedwe) nkhope ofanana galasi (konsekonse, ngodya) omwe akusonyeza anauza mkati dongosolo la thunthu.

Tinthu

crystalline chuma ndi tanthauzo ndi mchere olimba amene ayoni, maatomu kapena mamolekyulu imakonzedwa mwadongosolo. Zochita mawuwa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokoza zinthu okhala ndi kapangidwe zonse ndi katundu mbali koma osati kunja zojambula mawonekedwe

nkhwangwa Crystallographic

awa ndi mawu kungoganiza kutalika kalekale kuthamanga kudutsa

abwino galasi mu zina malangizo yotsimikizika poyerekezera ndi chosokonekera a galasi ndi. Iwo intersect pakati pa galasi pa mfundo yotchedwa chiyambi. (Iwo mizere ya Buku limene angathe kuyeza mtunda wachibale ndi zofuna za nkhope zosiyanasiyana.)

ngale otukuka

ngale otukuka ndi dongosolo ngale kwathunthu kapena pang'ono anachititsa

ndi phukusi la bungwe mu mkati mwa mollusks lapansi. Inakwaniritsidwa ngale otukuka kaya kapena wopanda phata ndi

chotupa ngale

ngale amene wapanga mu thupi la ngale mollusk ndipo spheroid mu mawonekedwe

Dendritic kulolerana

mtengo-ngati kapena Moss ngati mng'alu kudzazidwa (kumene inclusions chuma chosiyana fil yopuma -. zambiri chitsulo okusayidi)

Divitrify

kumana wa luster kunyezimira ndi transluceny. (Mu nkhani ya mankhwala galasi wotchedwa pambuyo yade - ndi chitukuko cha crystallization incipient)

Dichroscope

ndi dichroscope ndi chida amene amalola zotsatira pleochroic mchere mwala chakuti akuoneni, mitundu iwiri kapena mithunzi ya mtundu panthawi

mapindidwe akuwala

ndi mapindidwe akuwala kuwala ndi apadera mawonekedwe kulowelera wa kuwala umene kuwala woyera wosweka (kugawanika) ku mitundu yake zikuluzikulu monga kuwala umadutsa ndi kabowo kakang'ono kapena mafunde kuwala kudali m'mphepete ndi pakati mosiyana refracting zinthu (mwachitsanzo, sewero mtundu m'zimene opal wapatali)

kupezeka

kupezeka ndi kulekana (kuswedwa) kuwala woyera ku mitundu kawalidwe ndi refraction (a kupinda kuwala) monga kuwala umadutsa pamalo awiri okonda. Mu ngale nthawi zambiri amatchedwa 'moto'

wachiphamaso refractive

anisotropic - mchere naonetsere mbali katundu kuwala (mwachitsanzo, miyala tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic ndi triclinic kachitidwe)

atomu sipekitiramu

akuti ntchito zosiyanasiyana lonse la adziwana dzulo mphamvu chowala ku mafunde yaitali wailesi mwa yochepa kwambiri adziwana dzulo sindingaonekere

Zinthu chosokonekera

zinthu chosokonekera ndi unsembe wa classifi-ti- kwa kachitidwe asanu galasi. Iwo ndi zipangizo zomwe zingatithandize kupatukana ndi kufotokoza za mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mawonekedwe galasi. Kuphatikizapo ndege chosokonekera, ndi olamulira chosokonekera ndi malo chosokonekera (onani matanthauzo pansi mindandanda munthu)

Eluvium

eluvial madipoziti zigwirizana wa zinyalala thanthwe (miyala) omwe linasokoneza (ikuwombedwa kuchokera) kwa khamu thanthwe ndipo akhala mu situ (mu place) popanda akukumana kayendedwe mitsinje

zimatulutsa

kupereka kapena kunja (mwachitsanzo, kuwala)

Enantiomorphism

kapangidwe maselo a khwatsi zimene zinagwira lamanzere ndi lamanja kukula mwauzimu wa khwatsi, ndi kugawanika yake yozungulira. (Dziwani: The kaikidwe ka nkhope yaing'ono auxillary amene kawirikawiri kuonekeratu kunja mawonekedwe thandizo kuzindikira lamanja kapena lamanzere handedness la galasi la)

Kompyuta

onani mankhwala yokumba

inclusions Epigenetic

nsanamira inclusions ano. Zimene zinachitika mapangidwe gulu galasi. Kuphatikizapo zosiyanasiyana fissures ndi inclusions mchere popangidwa ndi exsolution (mwachitsanzo, rutile silika mu corundum); osanenapo mafuta / opticon, etc., zotsala mu wovulala wodzazidwa ngale.

Exsolution inclusions

onani exsolved

Exsolved

ndi unmixing mchere. Ena awiriawiri mchere kupanga njira olimba pa kutentha ndi kukhala wosakhazikika pa kutentha m'munsi. Pamene kuziziritsa pang'onopang'ono mchere munthu akhoza kukakamizidwa pamene dongosolo khamu akamazizira ndi mapangano, kwenikweni kufinya zosafunika mu malo wopanda kumene kuwumitsa (mwachitsanzo, rutile singano (silika) mu corundum)

ikutha

ikutha ndi yonena za kuwala kubwerera kwa diso. Amayambitsa mwala kuonekera mdima ndi akusowa billiance

mayina mbali

ngale faceted ndi korona (gawo pamwamba pamwamba lamba la), tebulo (pakati mbali ya korona), lamba (chigawo cha mwala ndi wamkulu wozungulira kapena malire kunja), ndi hema (mbali pansi m'munsimu lamba la ). pantchito zina zonse zingasiyane mu kukula, pafupipafupi kapena ngakhale kuli malinga ndi kudula kalembedwe ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, mu muyezo sitepe kudula (emarodi odulidwa) miyala culet (yaing'ono mbali pa tsinde la hema) m'malo mwa mzere muyezo (yaitali mzere anakafika pamodzi likulu la pansi hema)

pogawanikana pamawere abodza

onani asiyane

nthenga kulolerana

ndege la cavities miniti imene bwinobwino amaoneka ngati khamu la magawo abwino ndodo ngati a intercommunicating njira (kawirikawiri madzi odzazidwa).

fibrous

dzina chuma kumene timibulu constituent ndi singano woboola pakati (mwachitsanzo, asibesitosi, nephrite yade)

inclusions zala

izi mwina iwonso lotchedwa nthenga machiritso ndi zigwirizana interconnecting Intaneti a ngalande madzi odzazidwa ndi m'malovu chokhala ndi zala. Kawirikawiri chifukwa cha njira mchere pang'onopang'ono imathandiza mu mng'alu analipo pa galasi kale anapanga, ndi kuchiritsa fissure. Zinthu zina pamene ziwalo angayambe ndi pa kutentha mankhwala kutentha. Fingerprints sizachilendo m'mabuku rube ankachitira

chitsiriziro

mapeto amanena za khalidwe faceting a ngale ndi aweruzidwa ndi mlingo wa kudzawala, nthawi zonse, ndi flatness aliyense mbali

kuwala

kuwala ndi umuna wa kuwala looneka ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali kuti adziwa radiations zooneka kapena zosaoneka wa timaganiza wamfupi (mphamvu apamwamba)

wovulala

wovulala ndi Chip kusakhazikika yopuma mwala

Mfundo

mwala wamtengo wapatali wa mtundu uliwonse, kudula ndi opukutidwa kwa chokongoletsera (ngale ndi zosiyana chidwi ndi zofunikira masika). A mwala ndi tanthauzo ndi amene ali ndi kukongola, durability ndi m'chipani

Glass

galasi akuti umagwiritsidwa ntchito zinthu zimene analenga ndi limatsogolera ndi kuzirala mofulumira zinthu mchere, chifukwa mu mapangidwe zinthu amorphous. Glass kungakhale yokumba (zopangidwa, nthawi zina amatchedwa phala) kapena kuposa kawirikawiri, mwachitsanzo zachilengedwe, obsidian (chiphala galasi), tektites (ankaganiza kuti meteoric kuwaza mankhwala)

Miyalayo

Miyalayo ndi kuwala wachikuda, coarse-grained intrusive igneous thanthwe wopangidwa makamaka a khwatsi, feldspar ndi Mica anati

Growth banding

magulu mbandakucha mdima mu mizere molunjika pa kumathandiza kupeza ngodya zabwino zimene amatsatira chitsanzo structural ya mchere ya

chizolowezi

mawonekedwe khalidwe limene mchere kwambiri ambiri amapezeka. Chizolowezi kokha za maonekedwe akunja ambiri anatengedwa ndi mchere komanso mmene pamwamba zotsatira komanso

Hackly

onani wovulala

Halo kulolerana

galasi kulolerana atazunguliridwa ndi maganizo mng'alu (s). Imeneyi ndiye kuti amaoneka ngati Gulugufe ndi mapiko awiri wochokera galasi m'gulu (amene nthawi zambiri zircon)

kuuma

kuuma ndi mphamvu mchere ali kukana kukanda (kumva kuwawa). Onaninso moh ndi sikelo

kuchiritsa ming'alu

anachiritsa ming'alu (ming'alu kapena cleavages) kumene madzi analowa yopuma ndi galasi anakula pamodzi. Nthawi zambiri zigawo za madzimadzi azunguliridwa mu cavities ndi njira kuchititsa feathery kapena zala ngati dongosolo (nthawi zina chitsulo papezeka)

lokongola

hue amanena kuti dzina la mtundu wokha: choyera kawalidwe zomverera ofiira, achikasu, zobiriwira, buluu, Violet ndi yofanana ndi zimenezi. Lokongola limanenanso kumva wofiirira (pakati pa kufiira ndi violet), amene sapezeka sipekitiramu dzuwa

Madziwo

miyala adapereka, makamaka mu magawo otsiriza a kuphatikiza igneous kwa chiphalaphala wolemera mu madzi ndi zinthu zina oyaka. Mitsempha Madziwo a mchere wolemera njira zosefera kudzera mipata ndi fissures pa miyala nyanja ndi mawonekedwe galasi alimbane cavities mu thanthwe

Idiochromatic

pamene amafotokozera kusintha ndi constituent zofunika mu nkhani ngale, ndi chuma chamtengo ndi idiochromatic (idio = kudzikonda, chroma = mtundu)

kumiza cell

ang'onoang'ono cell galasi chifukwa munali zakumwa abwino. Mfundo pogwiritsa ntchito kumiza cell ndi kuti refractive Index wa madzi ndi mwala, kosavuta kuona bwino mu mwala. Pafupifupi madzi aliyense colorless, ngakhale madzi, adzadula padziko kusinkhasinkha, ndi kupanga kuonera inclusions zosavuta

mu situ

zakuthupi nawo pa udindo umene unali anapanga kapena waikamo akuti amapezeka situ (munyengo place)

kulolerana

onse amatanthauza chilema kapena irregularity mkati mwala. Inclusions akhoza kugawidwa mu mitundu itatu yosiyana: olimba-onse crystalline (mwachitsanzo, zircon mu safiro) kapena si-crystalline (mwachitsanzo, galasi chibadwidwe peridot) zitheka. Cavities awa akhoza kupanga pa khamu ngale kukula (inclusions chachikulu), kapena mtsogolo (inclusions yachiwiri). Mwina mtundu kutinso mudzazidwe ndi osakaniza aliyense wa madzi, mpweya ndi kapena olimba. Anthu ndi magawo awiri kapena ambiri watchedwa multiphase. Growth zochitika mtundu magawidwe ndi twinning zitsanzo zonse za zodabwitsa kukula

infuraredi

njira infuraredi m'munsimu wofiira ndi izi osiyanasiyana cheza akuyamba ndi adziwana dzulo kuti salinso kuposa 700nm wa kuwala kofiira. cheza infuraredi ambiri lotchedwa kutentha chifukwa amapangira Timatha chikondi akamwalira Pitani wathu

kulowelera

kumene cheza awiri oyendayenda mu njira yomweyo, koma mu gawo (sitepe), matanthauzo kusokoneza wina kuchititsa mwina okwana kutha kwa kuwala kapena chisanadze ulamuliro wa mitundu limodzi kapena kuposa

Chiwerengerochi kulowelera

izi ndi zotsatira kuwala ndinawona pamene iwiri mchere refractive amaona mwa nkhope yomweyi pa convergent mtanda wa kuwala magetsi. Kulipira mfundo zothandiza za khalidwe kuwala kwa mwala

mapasa Interpenetrant

choyimira cha galasi twinning imene anthu awiri kotero wamkulu pamodzi kuti Zikuoneka kuti atagonjetsa wina ndi mnzake (zambiri popanga mtanda kapena nyenyezi miyala)

Iridescence

iridescence kapena sewero mtundu akulongosola mtundu kapena angapo mitundu umatulutsa kusokonezedwa kapena mapindidwe akuwala pamene kuwala zimaonekera kaya kwa mafilimu woonda kapena ku dongosolo lapadera la opal wapatali

Isomorphous m'malo

panafunika wina mchitidwe mankhwala wina wa valency chomwecho mu mipweya. Izi zimachititsa ziwawa mu thupi katundu wa anthu a mndandanda. Valency: a ofanana mankhwala chikhalidwe ndi utali wozungulira amaayoni

Isotropic

onani singly refractive

Keshi otukuka ngale

mwachibadwa zikuchitika sanali nucleated madzi ngale amene amapanga mu mollusk ndi pamene anabwerera ku madzi pambuyo kuchotsa mbewu ya si nucleated ngale otukuka. Zimenezi si kusokonezedwa ndi m'madzi mbewu pearis amene amakhala ang'onoang'ono kwambiri. The madzi `keshi 'pokhapokha otchedwa chifukwa nawonso si wamkulu ku phata yokumba. Nthawi zina amatchedwa `seedless 'ngale kuti amasiyanitsa anthu omwe si nucleated. Onaninso Biwa ngale

Keshi ngale (m'madzi)

ndi Japanese kuitana mbewu ngale `keshi '(poppies). Gulu apa ndi pakati pa kukula ka mbewu poppy ndi ochepa ngale mwachibadwa anapanga

Konoscope

ndi polariscope zokuzira ndi mandala kwambiri convergent amene amathandiza atsogolere kuonerera kanjedza kulowelera

Lamellae inclusions

chifukwa cha twinning polysynthetic. Akhoza kuoneka ngati chi- kapena mandala nsomba mzere. Iwo ingaoneke kumakumana kumathandiza kupeza ngodya zabwino (mwachitsanzo, mu corundum kumene malangizo kukumana)

dothi Lateritic

nthaka chuma (lopangidwa ndi zidutswa thanthwe ndi zomera) zimene kwenikweni anachokera ku basait linakwiriridwa (a zabwino grained mdima chiphala mwala wolemera mu chitsulo ndi magnesium, lofunyululalo kwambiri zotsatira za mankhwala weathering m'dera lotentha)

Luminescence

ambiri lotanthauza kupereka kumbali ya looneka `ozizira kuwala 'ndi chinthu pa kupeza ubweya mphamvu zosiyanasiyana. The zochitika mfundo zisanu luminescent ndi: chemi-luminescence (chifukwa cha kusintha kwa mankhwala), tribo-luminescence (opangidwa ndi mikangano), thermo-luminescence (opangidwa ndi kutentha), photo¬luminescence (opangidwa ndi radiations zooneka kapena zosaoneka mphamvu apamwamba / wamfupi timaganiza) ndi cathodoluminescence (zotsatira malemeredwe ndi elekitironi mtengo mu chipinda zingalowe)

luster

luster ndi kuchuluka ndi khalidwe la kuwala kuti zimaonekera padziko mwala. Motere ntchito pofotokoza mwala wamtengo wapatali lusters: zachitsulo: mkulu luster kukuonetsedwa opaque mchere zachitsulo. adamantine: mkulu padziko reflectivity. vitreous: galasi ngati luster ankaikira ambiri ngale. utomoni wonunkhira: lililonse luster wa resins (zofewa ndi otsika RI). waxy: pafupifupi matte pamwamba (limatchedwa aliwonse). aliwonse: pang'ono wochuluka kuyang'ana chifukwa cha kubalalika wa kuwala ndi padziko microscopically akhakula. ngale: luster ngale / mayi wa ngale. silky: fibrous luster silika

Mabe (otukuka) ngale

gulu otukuka chithuza ngale imene phata original adachotsedwa ndipo m'malo ndi mkanda aang'ono umalimbikitsidwa, ndipo chidutswa mzikiti zooneka mother- a ngale glued kuti maziko ake kuphimba dera akusowa nacre

chiphalaphala

osungunula (madzi) thanthwe

malleable

njira malleable kukhala angathe kukhala anawonjezera kapena tinalengedwa ndi kumenya ndi nyundo kapena mavuto odzigudubuza

Opangidwa

wopangidwa mankhwala ndi tanthauzo ndi amene wakhala apanga kwa zasayansi a. (Lithe ndi kuika pamodzi kapena kuphatikiza zinthu mu zovuta lonse). Mapeto angakhale mwala wamtengo wapatali kupanga (ie, amene ali wofanana zachilengedwe) kapena mwala wamtengo wapatali yokumba (ie, amene alibe mnzake zachilengedwe)

chachikulu

mawu amene anagwiritsa ntchito pofotokoza zinthu zomwe ali ndi yotsimikizika internai dongosolo la galasi, koma si kusonyeza akunja zojambula mawonekedwe. Izi zikhoza analemba mayunitsi limodzi (mwachitsanzo, ananyamuka khwatsi) kapena kuposa galasi (mwachitsanzo, jadeite)

Mettalic

onani luster

Metamict

mawuwa ntchito zinthu zimene avutika yopuma-kuchokera ku crystalline kuti boma mwina amorphous; wamba mu mchere munali zipangizo nyukiliya (mwachitsanzo, otsika mtundu zircon)

miyala Metamorphic

metamorphic (kwenikweni, anasintha mawonekedwe) miyala anapanga ku miyala analipo kwenikweni ndi zochita za anzanu, kutentha ndi / kapena kukhazikitsa zinthu zatsopano mankhwala

Chinkafunika carat (CT)

mmodzi chinkafunika carat = wachisanu mmodzi wa gram (0.20gr) kapena 200 mamiligalamu (mg). A carat chinkafunika ndi woyezera kulemera kwa miyala yamtengo wapatali ail ndi ngale otukuka. kulemera chimaonetsera awiri malo decimal ndi decimals nthawi zambiri mwachisawawa amatchedwa 'mfundo, ie, 1 chinkafunika carat = mfundo 100

maikulosikopu

chida kuwala ongokhala osakaniza magalasi umene umabala fano wakuzidwa wa chinthu. Ena mwa ntchito zofunika kwambiri magnification: likhale phunziro (zachilengedwe vs. zopangidwa; mode mapangidwe / kukula galasi); pamwamba kufufuza (khalidwe la odulidwa (chosokonekera), kupukuta (zinthu za mbali, firemarks); kudziwika miyala gulu; chizindikiritso cha mankhwala yokumba; kuona chiopsezo cha kuwonongeka (mwachitsanzo, pamaso pa fupa lothyoka ndi / kapena pogawanikana pamawere); azindikire anawaonjezera kuwirikiza kawiri (SR vs .DR, iwonso amasonyeza kuchuluka kwa birefringence)

Maminolo

mchere ndi munthu mwachibadwa zikuchitika mankhwala zochita kupanga kukhala zikuchokera mankhwala ndi thupi katundu amene akupitiriza malire yopapatiza. akuphatikizapo zambiri crystalline

kuwala Monochromatic

monochromatic kuwala ndi kuwala kwa timaganiza chimodzi chokha. Muyezo yellow monochromatic kuwala ntchito miyezo Refractometer lachokera ku nyali sodium wochuluka nthunzi. Izi tichipeza awiri mizere kwambiri spaced umuna, amene phindu zikutanthauza ndi 589.3nm

inclusions Multiphase

inclusions kuti anyamula madzi ndi mpweya ndi / kapena timibulu

Nacre

ndi katulutsidwe opangidwa ndi zovala zina mollusks imene imagwiritsidwa ntchito zigawo iridescent kwa ngale ndi mayi wa ngale padziko mkati chipolopolo mollusk. Nacre tichipeza crystalline carbonate ya laimu ndi mfundo organic wotchedwa conchiolin

Namometers (nm)

botolo la Muyezo wa adziwana dzulo wamfupi a sipekitiramu atomu (chowala mphamvu). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth mbali ya millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 nm) mwachitsanzo, zooneka kuwala imagwera pakati 700nm (wofiira) ndi 400nm (violet)

Native odulidwa

anawagwiritsa ntchito kwa kalembedwe odulidwa wasankhidwa pazipita kulemera posungira. Izi miyala kwambiri odulidwa ndi pavilions lalikulu zambiri amafuna

recutting afike kufanana bwino

zoipa galasi

cavities mkati mwala kukhala crystalline mawonekedwe. cavities izi zinalengedwa pamene zina atakula pa mlingo mofulumira kuposa madera ena, kupanga ndi kamodzi opanda kapena kumene original kulolerana galasi wakhala kusungunuka kunja (timibulu zoipa zambiri kuoneka opepuka kuposa khamu lawo pansi darkfield chiwalitsiro)

zoipa kulolerana

ndi kulolerana oipa akhoza kukhala mpweya kapena madzi wodzazidwa kapena muli yaing'ono olimba kulolerana (onani galasi komanso zoipa)

zoipa kuwerenga

ngati mwala poyesedwa pa refractometer atakhala ndi R.1 pamwamba osiyanasiyana chida, palibe m'mphepete mthunzi sanaonerere (kupatula cha kukhudzana madzi)

Non-crystalline

mchere ndi zipangizo zina timamva kuti sanali crystalline kapena amorphous (kutanthauza maonekedwe) pamene iwo Jack mwadongosolo internai atomiki dongosolo ndi geometrically zonse akunja maonekedwe (mwachitsanzo, mchere zinthu, opal ndi galasi, komanso zipangizo organic)

Non-woyera kuwala

kuwala si woyera (ie, achikuda) limafotokoza mawu a hue ake (ie, mtundu wa timaganiza ake chisanadze lalikulu), machulukitsidwe (kuya kapena mphamvu za mtundu lalikulu) ndi kamvekedwe (mthunzi-kuwala kwa mdima)

Normal

mu Optics ail kumathandiza kupeza ngodya zabwino ndi muyeso kwa wabwinobwino, mzera kungoganiza kukopedwa pa kumathandiza kupeza ngodya pomwe (90 mfundo kumene ray amenya padziko osati padziko palokha

chamawonedwe olamulira

malangizo a refraction single mkati ndi galasi mwinamwake doubly refractive amadziwika monga olamulira chamawonedwe

khalidwe chamawonedwe

tiwona chikhalidwe chamawonedwe

Chamawonedwe chithunzi dera

kapu dera zokuzira ndodo yochepa yomwe imateteza condensing mandala kuthandiza kutsimikiza kulowelera dongosolo anawona pamodzi ndi olamulira chamawonedwe mu zinthu anisotropic

chamawonedwe chikhalidwe

chamawonedwe chikhalidwe cha mchere ndi: mchere anawagawa uniaxial, biaxial ndi isotropic (chamawonedwe khalidwe). Uniaxial ndi biaxial mchere zina lophatikizana ndi ubwamunalo linagawanika mu iwo amene optically zabwino ndi iwo amene optically zoipa (chamawonedwe chizindikiro)

chamawonedwe chizindikiro

tiwona chikhalidwe chamawonedwe

kuwala kachulukidwe

kachulukidwe kuwala ndi chuma zovuta zomwe demonstates yokha mu liwiro la kuwala. (Onaninso refraction)

mankhwala organic

mankhwala organic ndi zipangizo opangidwa ndi ntchito ya zamoyo

Asia (a ngale)

ndi iridescent padziko Sheen ngale mwala ndi mayi wa ngale. Iwo amayamba ndi kuwasokoneza wa kuwala mafilimu woonda (mbale zonyalazo wosanjikiza nacreous) ndi mapindidwe akuwala ku mbali yabwino ya zipangizo

ngale Oriental

anagwiritsa ntchito mawu amenewa ndi ufulu kwa kufotokoza ngale zachilengedwe zopezeka mollusks sait madzi a Persian Gulf. Komabe, papita malonda kwambiri ambiri mwambo kalasi ail saltwater ngale zachilengedwe monga kum'maŵa

asiyane

asiyane ndi breakage chimene chimachitika pamodzi ndi ndege cha kufooka, osati limodzi ndege ikufanana ndi nkhope Krustalo, kapena n'zotheka

galasi chinayang'ana, monga pogawanikana pamawere (imatchedwanso monga pogawanikana pamawere zabodza)

Pearl yambewu

ngale tirigu ndi muyezo woyezera kuti ngale masekeli 1 tirigu = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)

ngale

ngale ndi dongosolo zachilengedwe tochoka mwangozi popanda thandizo la bungwe lililonse la anthu, mkati mwa mollusks. Iwo wapangidwa ndi chinthu organic (a scleroprotein dzina lake conchiolin) ndi kashiamu carbonate (kawirikawiri mu mawonekedwe a aragonite) anakonza mu zigawo concentric, yakumapeto kwenikweni, polumikizirana amene ali makamaka nacreous

ngale

onani luster

Pegmatites

igneous thanthwe la phindu coarse zambiri munali mchere kawirikawiri, kuphatikizapo mibulu yaikulu ya miyala yamtengo wapatali (mwachitsanzo, kulusolito, chrysoberyl, feldspar, khwatsi, spessartite garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence ndiye kuti anachedwa kuwala (ie, ndi kuwala kotsalira m'mbuyo). Iwo anapitiriza umuna kuwala kuonekera pambuyo gwero cheza zimandipatsa mphamvu watha

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence ndi mawu gulu chifukwa kuwala ndi phosphorescence. Ndi zotsatira anasonyeza ndi zipangizo zina yopangira kuwala kuonekera pa kukumana kwa timaganiza cheza yochepa (mwachitsanzo, radiations atomu mu zooneka (buluu), ultraviolet ndi x-ray mbali sipekitiramu a)

Pinpoints

particles ang'onoang'ono napeza monga inclusions. Pamene awa alipo ambiri akhale ngati mtambo anafotokoza ndi chilungamo cha mwala mododoma

madipoziti Placer

placer madipoziti zigwirizana woipa padziko mchere wofunika kwa mkulu yokoka enieni (ndi durability) amene anapanga ndi weathering thanthwe kholo ndipo, nthawi zambiri, kenako wakhala amadutsa mwa mtsinje kapena yoweyula kanthu

Ndege chosokonekera

mbali chosokonekera; ndege chosokonekera ndi ndege kungoganiza lomwe limapanga malire a thupi m'magulu awiri kuti aliyense gawo potengera (galasi) chifaniziro cha mbali ina (ie, mbali liri lenileni osiyanitsidwa mnzake wa ena)

mapulasitiki

ndi ambiri akuti kwa chiwerengero cha organic zinthu zopangidwa (kawirikawiri utomoni zochokera polima) amene akhoza extruded kapena kutsogoleredwa ndi kutentha ndi / kapena chipsyinjo

Play a mtundu

mawu akuti sewero mtundu limafotokoza nkhani ya mitundu ndinawona pamene kuwala zimaonekera ku mafilimu woonda kapena kwa mmodzi latisi ngati dongosolo la opal wapatali. Chifukwa amapangidwa ndi mapindidwe akuwala (kumatula ndi kuwala woyera ku mitundu yake chigawo chimodzi kuunika umadutsa ndi kabowo kakang'ono) omwe ndi apadera mawonekedwe kulowelera kuwala

Pleochroism

pleochroism (kutanthauza ambiri achikuda) ndi ambiri anawagwiritsa ntchito pofotokoza zosiyanasiyana mitundu mbali kumene m'zimene ena miyala achikuda amene anagawa kuwala (ie, ndi doubly refracting) chifukwa dongosolo awo mkati galasi. Pamafunikanso dichroism (awiri akuda) ndi trichroism (atatu akuda)

Polariscope

ndi polariscope ndi chida wopangidwa mayunitsi awiri kwa kupanga ndege magetsi kuwala anakonza ndi gawo onsewo pakati pawo. Mayesero chipangizo okha kapena chuma ndi singly kapena doubly refractive

zochita Polariscope

singly refractive-chuma akhala mdima yonse ya 360 ° nayenso. Ngati nkhaniyo ili pansi pa kupsyinjika internai izo angasonyeze anomalous (zabodza) iwiri refraction (ADR), kawirikawiri mu mawonekedwe a magulu wavy kapena yamawangamawanga osasamba. Wachiphamaso refractive miyala kudula kwa galasi limodzi ndi maudindo anai kuwala ndi malo anayi a mdima. Tinthu aggregates kapena kwambiri m'gulu DR zinthu zingaoneke ail kuwala yonse ya 360 ° nayenso. Kulowelera chithunzi-mu nkhani ya DR zakuthupi, ngati zinthu akulondola ndi kuwasokoneza chithunzi amatchuka, n'zothekanso kuona ngati mwala ndi uniaxial kapena biaxial. (Chamawonedwe manja kamodzi popeza anapeza kulowelera chithunzi, ndi koposa kuona ngati mwala ndi zabwino kapena zoipa pogwiritsa

mbale chowonjezera umaperekedwa makamaka ndi cholinga kuti)

Polycrystalline

mchere amene aggregates ndi timibulu ting'onoting'ono watchedwa polycrystalline. timibulu ang'onoang'ono tingalipeze ntchito magnification, ndi zina mwa diso yekha (mwachitsanzo, pafupifupi ail jadeite yade)

mapasa Polysynthetic

onani mapasa lammelar

Potch (wamba opal)

yamkaka zinthu akusowa sewero mtundu lopangidwa muzochitika silika kukula wosiyana potero kupangitsa kuwala kwa zidzabalalika osati diffracted

inclusions Protogenetic

analipo inclusions. awo amene anali pamaso pa khamu galasi anayamba kupanga ndipo anali odzipereka 'wokonzeka anapanga' mu masika (mwachitsanzo, particles olimba ndi timibulu yaing'ono Iwo n'zomwe zoumbika mosiyanasiyana yatcheredwa lonse ndi amangofikira zokhudzana ndi khamu Crystal kapangidwe

Pseudomorph

ndi pseudomorph (mawonekedwe wonyenga) ndi mchere umene umakhala ndi (mawonekedwe) a mchere wina (kapena thunthu organic) chifukwa cha kutentha ndi / kapena mavuto kapena mankhwala njira, mwachitsanzo, diso nyalugwe a (khwatsi m'malo a crocidolite, mchere ndi asibesitosi); nkhuni sibu (a khwatsi m'malo nkhuni)

Poganizira

chinyezimiro ndi kubwerera ndi pamwamba pa (ngati internai kapena kunja) Ena mwa kuwunika kugwa padziko izo. Onaninso Malamulo Snell a

Refraction

refraction ndi kusintha mu dera limene kuwala amayenda pamene amapatsirana media wina ndi mzake zosiyanasiyana kachulukidwe kuwala (kupatula pamene kupanda padziko wamba media ziwiri 90 °). Monga kuwala amapatsirana ndi n'kukhala ndi lolemererapo sing'anga (mwachitsanzo, kwa mpweya mwala) ndi akuyese- cha wabwinobwino, Tikawonetsetsa monga chitadutsa ku lolemererapo kwa sing'anga n'kukhala ndi unakhota kuchokera wamba. Kuwala kachulukidwe ndi chuma zovuta amene atsimikiza yokha mu liwiro la kuwala. Onaninso Malamulo Snell a

Refractive Index (RI)

ndi RI ndi chiŵerengero yosavuta kuyerekeza kuwala kumayendera mu mpweya liwiro la kuwala sing'anga anapatsidwa. Muyezo ntchito kuyeza refractive Index ndi mpweya (mosamalitsa zingalowe); Choncho RI mpweya ankaona kuti 1.00

metamorphic Regional

ndi recrystallization wa okhutira mchere wa miyala analipo pa kutentha kuchuluka (700 ° -2000 ° C) ndi opanikizika

wachibale kachulukidwe

Onani yokoka enieni (SG)

adziwana dzulo yotsalira

adziwana dzulo yotsalira anthu amene adziwana dzulo osati chosakanikirana ndi zinthu zimene zimagwirizana kutipatsa perc-eived mtundu wa chinthu

utomoni wonunkhira

Onani luster

Rock

thanthwe tichipeza particles mchere umene wamkulu kapena kuti manowa pamodzi ndi mankhwala zako kapena akhala akapolo pamodzi ndi kutentha kapena chipsyinjo

machulukitsidwe

amanena za khalidwe kapena mphamvu ya mtundu ndinawona mu brilliancy kunachita miyala mandala faceted

Schiller

Onani Sheen

Scintillation

kunyezimira; kupereka pa wamfupi, cheza kuwala

Sectile

sectile amatanthauza zipangizo imapanga kuti katungulume ndi mpeni ndi odulidwa yosalala

miyala nyanja

amene anapanga ndi kumanga ndi chuma (m'dambo) amene linachokera ku thupi ndi mankhwala kuwonongedwa analipo miyala padziko lapansi

ngale mbewu

ngale ochepa kwambiri (osakwana v. tirigu / pafupifupi. 2mm) kuti mwachilengedwe anapanga mu minofu zofewa la mollusk chifukwa cha nkhondo ya mchenga, mazira ufulu akuyandama, majeremusi kapena matupi ena achilendo. ngale mbewu amakhala osasamba ndi mosabisa, koma pamene anthu osowa kuzungulira zimapezeka, iwo apatulidwa ntchito zodzikongoletsera. Onaninso Keshi ngale

kusankha mayamwidwe

kusankha mayamwidwe kuwala ndi yimitsira kapena mayamwidwe adziwana dzulo ena ochokera m'kupita kuwala chinthu kapena zimaonekera pa nkhope yake. Mtundu wa zotsatira nkhani otsala adziwana dzulo (yotsalira) kuti akafike diso

Sheen (kapena Schiller)

Sheen ndi shimmering kapena akakufunsani (anayala) chinyezimiro kwenikweni chifukwa cha kuwala akusonyeza kuchokera inclusions kapena mbali structural mkati mwala. The akuti zikuphatikizapo chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence ndi sewero mtundu mu opal)

Silika (likhale)

mndandanda wa singano abwino kufanana (kawirikawiri rutile)

Single refractive

umatchedwanso isotropic. mchere umene kuonetsa yemweyo katundu kuwala mbali ail (mwachitsanzo, miyala dongosolo kiyubiki ndi chuma amorphous)

Malamulo Snell la refraction

pamene ray kuwala amapatsirana sing'anga ina pali chiŵerengero kotsimikizika pakati pa sine a mbali ya zochitika ndi sine a mbali ya refraction. Chochitika ray, ndi ray refracted ndi zachilendo (pa nsonga ya zochitika) ndi ail mu ndege chomwecho. The chiŵerengero yosatha pakati pa mbali ya zochitika ndi refraction TV ziwiri anakumana kuwala anaitanidwa ndi Snell ndi refractive Index (RI)

South Sea ngale

chimphona otukuka ngale, otukuka mu oysters siliva lipped ngale ndi awiri a 12 kapena 16mm. Zazikulu ngale yoyera kum'patsa dzina South Sea chifukwa poyambirira opangidwa ndi Japanese mu Microne-sia ndi Indonesia. Today ngale izi kawirikawiri opangidwa ku Australia ndi Burma, ndi Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea ndi Thailand monga magwero wosalemekezeka. Chibwenzi palibe bwino yokumba kumuthira mndandanda wa nkhono siliva lipped ngale, kutanthauza kuti kotunga oysters mayi yochepa ndi mitengo mogwirizana mkulu

Enieni yokoka (SG)

ndi SG kapena wachibale kachulukidwe zakuthupi ndi chiŵerengero pakati pa kulemera kwa chinthu ndi kulemera kwa Buku wofanana madzi woyera pa 4 ° C (madzi a pazipita kachulukidwe) ndi pa mavuto muyezo mumlengalenga. SG chokhudzana ndi mankhwala zikuchokera nkhaniyo komanso kulumikiza yapakati-atomiki (kwenikweni amakhala ndi moyo osati mwa kulemera atomiki la zinthu zosiyanasiyana chigawo komanso mmene ma atomu anayikidwa limodzi)

Spectroscope

chida chimene alekanitsa kunafika muuni wa kuwala adziwana dzulo lake constituent kapena mitundu sipekitiramu mwa prism kapena mapindidwe akuwala grating. The spectroscope umathandiza munthu kuti aone zigawo enieni (mizere kapena magulu) kapena madera (yotakata mayamwidwe) kuwala oyera chosakanikirana ndi mwala wamtengo wapatali mwa zimasweka kapena kufalitsa mu mlengalenga ngati kuwala yotsalira omwe opatsirana kapena anasonyeza ku mwala poyesedwa (osati ail miyala kusonyeza sipekitiramu osati ail spectrums zosawoneka ziri matenda koma mayamwidwe magulu kungasonyeze mitundu wothandizira kapena kukhalapo kwa zinthu zina)

Splintery

onani wovulala

chosokonekera

chosokonekera amatanthauza mosalekeza kapena muyezo wa mawonekedwe a ngale ndi a ku malo maso ndi mumbiri

inclusions Syngenetic

inclusions m'nthawi wopangidwa mwa zinthu zimene anali kuperekedwa pa nthawi yofanana ndi gulu crystai (mwachitsanzo, zolimba mchere; zakumwa mu cavities ndi ming'alu ya machiritso; zonal magulu; inclusions madzi. kuda kukula monga mtundu magawidwe ndi mapangidwe amapasa Pali kawirikawiri ndi analamula intergrowth pakati pa inclusions syngenetic ndi khamu galasi kuti awiri ibale ubale structural malamulo crystallographic

kupanga miyala yamtengo wapatali

mankhwala kupanga ali yemweyo mipweya, dongosolo atomiki ndi thupi katundu monga mnzake zake zachilengedwe (mwachitsanzo, kupanga emarodi, kupanga corundum, etc.)

opirira

zinafuna kapena kulimba ndi kulimbikira mwala kuswa kapena fracturing. Iwo chokhudzana ndi luso mchere kuyamwa zodabwitsa popanda kusokoneza kapangidwe internai. Terms anakumana ndi pankhaniyi monga Chimaona, sectile, malleable, kugawa zotanuka

mafilimu woonda

ankaona pansi kuwala mafilimu amenewa woonda ndi maonekedwe iridescent ankaikira wosanjikiza woonda mafuta pa madzi kapena osiyanasiyana padziko ndi sopo kuwira

Atatu gawo kulolerana

madzi odzazidwa patsekeke munali kuwira ndipo mibulu

kamvekedwe

kamvekedwe amatanthauza lightness wachibale kapena mdima anazindikira (kaya hue kapena woyera kuti wakuda)

Total chinyezimiro mkati

okwana chinyezimiro mkati amapezeka kumene, ray wa m'kupita kuwala kochokera ku lolemererapo kwa sing'anga n'kukhala pa ngodya ndi wamkulu kuposa mbali yapadera ndi anabwerera lolemererapo sing'anga kumene amamvera malamulo a chinyezimiro

kulimba

onani opirira

zinthu kusintha

dzina ntchito zina zinthu zachitsulo amene chifukwa dongosolo lawo atomiki, mavuto mayamwidwe kusankha kuwala miyala idiochromatic ndi allochromatic. Iwo ali chrome, cobalt, mkuwa, vanadium, manganese, chitsulo, faifi tambala ndi titaniyamu

zimafalitsa

pochitika (mwachitsanzo, kuwala) kwa sing'anga wina ndi mzake; kuti atumize (mwachitsanzo, mbendera) kapena kutumiza pa (e..g., kwa munthu wina ndi mzake)

Transparency

ufulu umene kuwala wadutsa kapena kudzera mwala. The madigiri zosiyanasiyana za chilungamo amapatsidwa monga: mandala (TP) kutanthauza chinthu mandala akuganizira ndipo zimatenga pang'ono kuwunika imagwera pa izo, koma zimathandiza kwambiri kudutsa. Chinthu ankaona kudzera mwala akuoneka bwino ndi osiyana. Sub-mandala (S-TP) kutanthauza yambiri kuwala imafalikira kudzera mwala, koma maonekedwe a chinthu mbali ina ya mwala sangathe kuwasiyanitsa. Sub-translucent (S-TL) -only pang'ono la kuunika akhoza kudutsa mwala pa m'mbali woonda. Opaque (0) -ail a kuwunika imagwera pa chinthu opaque mwina anasonyeza kapena odzipereka. No kuwala umadutsa chuma, ngakhale m'mbali woonda.

Treacle kulolerana

ndi kutentha yoweyula kapena roiled zotsatira-wisps ndi swirls a mtundu

amapasa galasi

mibulu amapasa ndi galasi limene linapangidwa Magawo awiri a galasi kapena timibulu awiri kapena kuposa a mtundu womwewo amene ali mwachindunji ubwenzi crystallographic wina ndi mnzake ndi wamkulu pamodzi m'njira zooneka (onani mapasa kukhudzana ndi mapasa interpenetrant)

gawo awiri kulolerana

madzi odzazidwa patsekeke munali kuwira kapena mibulu

Ultraviolet (UV)

ultraviolet zikutanthauza kupitirira violet. Izi osiyanasiyana cheza akuyamba ndi adziwana dzulo kuti ali wamfupi kusiyana ndi 400nm kuwala violet

miyala Uniaxial

mu hexagonal ndi trigonal ndi tetragonal kachitidwe galasi pali wina chamawonedwe olamulira (malangizo a refraction single): mchere la kachitidwe akudziwika ngati uniaxial (miyala uniaxial olamulira chamawonedwe likufanana ndi mphunzitsi ofukula 'C' olamulira)

Unit cell

unit selo ya kapangidwe galasi ndilo gawo laling'ono la mibulu imene adakali ndi katundu khalidwe la galasi la chimatchedwa unit selo. Mmene maselo unit zakhala zikuzunza m'miyoyo mwachibadwa mayi chimachititsa maonekedwe akunja a galasi ndi

chophimba kulolerana

kuwona nthenga kulolerana

kuwala looneka

looneka kuwala ndi maonekedwe a mphamvu chowala zimene zinagwira Timatha kuona. timaganiza aliyense cheza atomu kuti pafupifupi pakati 400nm ndi 700nm kumaoneka kuti maso athu monga kuwala

Vitreous

onani luster

timaganiza

timaganiza amati ndi mtunda pakati pa nsonga ziwiri mondondozana wa yoweyula kuti

Waxy

onani luster

White kuwala

kuwala woyera (wosakaniza kuwala) imakhala ya osakaniza pafupifupi wofanana mitundu yonse kapena adziwana dzulo amapanga looneka sipekitiramu (ofiira, achikasu, zobiriwira, buluu ndi violet). Mtundu wa kuwala zimakhala ndi kumadalira timaganiza za. mafunde Red ndi adziwana dzulo yaitali (700 + nm) ndipo zimenezi kumawononga mwa sipekitiramu kuti Violet adziwana dzulo, amene yaifupi (400nm pafupifupi 1 / 4 kutalika kwa kuwala wofiira)

zenera

mandala dera otsika mtundu kwambiri chifukwa cha kutayikira kuwunika amalola maziko kuseri mwala kuti muwonekere (werengani mwa zotsatira)

zircon kampira

onani kampira kulolerana

Zonal striae

khungu magulu

0 magawo
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